Background: Vascular endothelial dysfunction, arteriosclerosis and atherosclerotic plaque are well-known risk factors for cardiovascular disease (CVD). Studies on vascular health markers have been well-established, however, there is still a lack of related research on combined vascular structure and function indicators. A variety of CVD prediction models are proposed, all of which are aimed at the traditional risk factors. Beijing vascular health stratification (BVHS) aiming at vascular health, combined the endothelial function, arteriosclerosis, atherosclerotic plaque and vascular lumen stenosis to comprehensively assess the vascular health and grade it. This study will take the BVHS as the guiding ideology to explore the predictive value of the combined evaluation of vascular structure and function for cardiovascular events and assess the predictive value of BVHS and compare it with the existing risk assessment systems. Methods: A total of 1,500 subjects will be enrolled into the prospective cohort study from a community and will be followed up for 3 years from July 1, 2020 to June 30, 2023. Subjects aged 40 or above, without coronary heart disease, stroke or peripheral artery disease, with written informed consent will be included; subjects with end-stage hepatorenal diseases (uremia, renal failure, cirrhosis, liver failure), mental disorders or cognitive disorders, with any other factors that the researcher thinks are not suitable for the study will be excluded. Conclusions: The study will be the first to grade vascular health by combing various vascular indicators and explore the prediction value and compare with other risk prediction system in general Chinese population.