Objectives: Type 2 diabetes mellitus(T2DM) can accelerate the clinical process of atherosclerosis(AS). Dipeptidyl peptidase-4 inhibitors(DPP-4Is) have potential anti-AS effects. And, we completed a meta-analysis of the changes in carotid intima-media thickness(CIMT), flow-mediated dilation(FMD), and pulse wave velocity(PWV) of DPP-4Is to research the effect of DPP-4Is in the progression of AS in T2DM patients. Materials and methods: We included RCTs that evaluated the impact of DPP-4Is on CIMT, FMD, and PWV compared to other treatments from PubMed, Cochrane trials, and Embase database before October 31, 2020. We selected the random-effect model and calculated the weighted mean difference(WMD) to evaluate the effect of CIMT, FMD, and PWV in T2DM patients. Results：Through the meta-analysis, we found that DPP-4Is can significantly reduce CIMT in T2DM patients(WMD =-0.036, 95% CI:-0.055 to-0.017; p≤0.001). Based on the subgroup analysis, we found that CIMT was significantly decreased in patients with greater than 12 months of intervention and without cardiovascular diseases. Besides, we also found that DPP-4Is had a not significant efficacy on the improvement of FMD in T2DM patients(WMD=0.635, 95% CI: -0.112 to 1.383, p= 0.097). Our subgroup analysis showed that for T2DM patients who have cardiovascular diseases, DPP-4Is can significantly increase their FMD. In addition, we also found that DPP-4Is had an insignificant influence on PWV in T2DM patients(WMD= 0.424, 95% CI: -0.198 to 1.046, p= 0.18). but SGLT2 inhibitors may reduce the PWV of T2DM patients. Conclusions: DPP-4Is can alleviate the development of AS in T2DM patients to a certain extent by reducing CIMT. And, we believe that long-term use of DPP-4Is may be more helpful to alleviate the atherosclerotic development of T2DM without obvious cardiovascular history.
Objective: The aim of this study is to evaluate the outcome of ablation therapy in our clinic for the treatment of patients with small renal mass Materials and Methods: We retrospectively evaluated the technic and follow-up data of 30 patients with 36 tumors who underwent Radiofrequency Ablation (RFA) and Microwave Ablation (MWA) in our clinic. Demographic data, ablation type, tumor characteristics, peroperative and postoperative complications and treatment success of the patients were evaluated. Results: A total of 36 tumors who underwent ablation treatments, 23 were treated with RFA, 13 with MWA. The mean tumor size was 28.9 ± 6.92 mm in RFA and 29.3 ± 7.70 mm in MWA. 12 (52.1%) of the RFA procedures were applied to the right kidney while 11 (47.8%) were applied to the left kidney. 6 (46.1%) of the MWA procedures were performed on the right kidney and 7 (53.8%) on the left kidney. Of the 36 tumors, 4 (11.1%) were located central and 32 (88.8%) were peripheral. Complications occurred in 2 patients. In one of these patients, acute renal failure and urea creatinine were found to be elevated. In the other patient, local pain was found in the ablation side and minor bleeding was detected at the ablation site in USG. The mean follow-up period was 49.6 ± 24.7 months in patients with RFA and mean follow-up was 16 ± 8,05 months in MWA treatments. The overall success in MWA administration was calculated as 76.9%, while the overall success in RFA was 80%. Conclusion: Long-term oncologic efficacy of RFA appears to be successful in the treatment of T1a renal carcinomas. Further studies can be conducted to elucidate the influence of MWA on long-term oncological outcomes.
Aim: In this study, we aimed to evaluate the anxiety and depression status of prostate cancer (PCa) patients whose planned operations in the urology clinic of our hospital, which is serving as a pandemic hospital in Turkey have been postponed due to the coronavirus disease 2019 pandemic. Methods: This survey study was conducted at urology clinic of Ankara City Hospital between March 1 and June 1, 2020 and included 24 male patients who agreed to answer the questionnaires (State-Trait Anxiety Inventory [STAI] I and II and Beck Depression Inventory [BDI]). Demographical and clinical data (age, time since diagnosis, total serum prostate specific antigen (PSA) levels, risk groups according to the D’Amico classification system, smoking, alcohol habitus, major surgical history, and comorbidities) of the patients were collected from hospital software. Results: The mean STAI-I score of the patients (46.7 ± 1.4 [44–49]) was significantly higher than their STAI-II score (41.7 ± 2.4 [39–47]) (p < 0.001). The negative correlation between the decrease in age and STAI-I score was found to be statistically significant (r = 0.439, p < 0.05). The mean BDI score of the patients was 4.3 ± 3.2 (0–13), which was compatible with mild depression. There was no statistically significant difference between the time elapsed from diagnosis, PSA levels, smoking and alcohol habitus, major surgical history and comorbidity status, and STAI-I, STAI-II, and BDI scores (p > 0.05). Conclusion: Prostate cancer patients with postponed operations should be guided properly in order to manage their anxiety status especially young patients.
Aims Serum biomarkers have a potential role in the risk stratification of patients with heart valve disease and may help determine the optimal timing of intervention. Much of the published literature relates to biomarker sampling in a resting state, but the relationship of exercise biomarkers is less well described. We performed a systematic review to examine the significance of exercise natriuretic peptides on echocardiographic variables and cardiovascular events, in valvular heart disease. Methods A search for studies that assessed exercise biomarkers in patients with moderate to severe valve lesions was performed. We examined the relationship between rest and exercise BNP and also the endpoints of symptoms, haemodynamic or echocardiographic variables and clinical outcomes. Results 11 prospective studies were identified (844 participants). 61% were male and the mean age was 55.2 ± 9.6 years. The majority of the blood samples were taken at baseline and within 3 minutes of stopping exercise. There was a significant increase in exercise BNP compared with rest, in patients with aortic stenosis, mitral regurgitation and mitral stenosis. Elevated exercise BNP levels correlated with mean gradient and left atrial area, and there was a relationship between a higher exercise BNP and a blunted blood pressure response, in aortic stenosis. Furthermore, exercise BNP was independently associated with cardiac events, over and above resting values, in patients with mitral regurgitation and aortic stenosis. Conclusions The results suggesting that exercise natriuretic peptide levels may have additive prognostic importance over resting levels, as well as demographic and echocardiographic data.
Background. The use of transcutaneous near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) for the monitoring of the perfusion of renal allografts in paediatric population has been proposed in the last years. This device might detect early decrease in allograft oxygenation allowing prompt detection of vascular complications. Methods. A systematic review of literature about the use of transcutaneous NIRS in monitoring allograft perfusion was performed according to the PRISMA guidelines. Results. The authors screened 1313 papers. The search yielded five pertinent articles. Three of them reported the experience of NIRS in kidney transplantation, for a total of 53 paediatric patients and 50 adults. In these studies, NIRS measurements was significantly related to serum creatinine, estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR), urinary neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin (u-NGAL), serum lactate, resistive index assessed by doppler-ultrasonography and systolic blood pressure. In the paediatric studies no vascular complications were encountered. Conclusions. Preliminary studies have related NIRS monitoring to renal allograft perfusion and function. Further investigation is needed to establish the normal range of NIRS values for renal allografts and the factors influencing NIRS monitoring.
Objectives: The objective of the present study was to investigate the effect of the Pulmonary Rehabilitation Program on work productivity, disease activity, functional status, quality of life, Respiratory Function Tests (RFTs), physical capacity,and depression in Ankylosing Spondylitis (AS) patients. Method: Twenty-five patients diagnosed with AS were included in the study. The disease severity was evaluated with Bath Ankylosing Spondylitis Disease Activity Index (BASDAI), functional status was evaluated with Bath Ankylosing Spondylitis Functional Index (BASFI), and quality of life was evaluated with AS-Related Quality of Life scale (ASQOL). Physical capacity was evaluated with the 6-Minute Walking Test (6MWT), depression level was evaluated with Beck Depression Scale (BDS),and work productivity was evaluated with Spondyloartropathy Work Productivity and Activity Impairment (WPAI-SpA) Survey. RFT was evaluated with spirometry measurement. The patients were included in the Pulmonary Rehabilitation Program for 8 weeks. Results: A total of 30% of the patients who were included in the study were unemployed; 35% of them were on and below hunger limit; 25% were on and below poverty line; and 40% were on normal income line. No significant changes were detected in the RFTs after the exercise program in AS patients (p > 0.05), but significantly improvements were detected in the BASDAI, BASFI, WPAI, 6MWT, ASQOL and BDS scales (p <0.001). Conclusion: Pulmonary Rehabilitation Program was found to be an effective method of improving work productivity in AS patients. Also, the Pulmonary Rehabilitation Program has positive effects on disease activity, functional status, physical capacity, depression level, and quality of life.
Aim In this study, we aimed to investigate the effectiveness of ozone therapy, which is one of the integrative medicine applications that has been used safely for many years, on the prevalence of mortality in patients receiving COVID-19 treatment. Methods This was a prospective, controlled study conducted on patients with COVID-19 who were hospitalized in Health Sciences University, Haydarpasa Numune Training and Research Hospital. In this study, 55 patients were included. The patients were divided into two groups as the ozone group and the control group. Ozone therapy (major autohemotherapy) was applied to 37 patients who were being treated with the appropriate COVID-19 treatment protocol determined by the infectious diseases committee of our hospital. The ozone treatment protocol consisted of seven sessions (1 session/day) of intravenous ozone administration, applied in a volume of 100 mL and a concentration of 30 μg/mL. Only the conventional COVID-19 treatment protocol was applied to 18 patients in the control group. Clinical follow-up was performed until the discharge of the patients from the hospital with successful treatment or until the mortality occurred. Factors affecting mortality were analyzed using univariate regression analysis. Results Intensive care unit (ICU) hospitalization was required in six of 37 patients who were treated with ozone (16.2%), while four of 18 patients in the control group required ICU treatment (22.2%) (p = 0.713). When the mortality rates between the two groups were compared, mortality was lower in the ozone group (p = 0.032). As a result of univariate logistic regression analysis performed to determine the factors affecting mortality, treatment without ozone therapy was determined as a risk factor for mortality (OR:0.149, 95%CI 0.026-0.863, p=0.034). Conclusion In this study, we demonstrated that administration of ozone therapy along with the conventional medical treatment in patients hospitalized for COVID-19 could reduce mortality.
Background The impact of lockdown measures can be widespread, affecting both clinical and psychosocial aspects of health. This study aims to assess changes in health services access, diabetes self-care, behavioral and psychological impact of COVID-19 and partial lockdown in Singapore. Methods We conducted a cross-sectional online survey amongst people with diabetes with the Diabetes Health Profile-18 (DHP-18). Hierarchical regression analyses were performed for each DHP-18 subscale (Psychological Distress, Disinhibited Eating and Barriers to Activity) as dependent variables in separate models. Results Among 301 respondents, 45.2% were women, majority were ethnic Chinese (67.1%), aged 40 to 49 years (24.2%), have Type 2 diabetes (68.4%) and on oral medications (42.2%). During the lockdown, nearly all respondents were able to obtain their medications, supplies (94%) and contact their doctors (97%) when needed. Respondents reported less physical activity (38%), checking of blood pressure (29%) and blood glucose (22%). Previous diagnosis of mental health conditions (β=11.44, p= 0.017), diabetes-related comorbidities (β= 3.98, p= 0.001) and Indian ethnicity (β= 7.73, p= 0.018) were significantly associated with higher psychological distress. Comorbidities were associated with higher disinhibited eating (β= 2.71, p= 0.007) while mental health condition was associated with greater barriers to activities (β= 9.63, p= 0.033). Conclusion Health services access were minimally affected but COVID-19 and lockdown had mixed impact on self-care and management behaviors. Greater clinical care and attention should be provided to people with diabetes with greater number of comorbidities and previous mental health disorders during the pandemic and lockdown.
Eltrombopag is a highly effective treatment for immune thrombocytopenia (ITP). Cases of durable remission after the discontinuation of eltrombopag in adult ITP have recently been reported; however, the frequency and mechanisms responsible for this phenomenon remain unknown. In the present study, we examined the phenotypes of lymphocytes in ITP to clarify whether they predict outcomes after the discontinuation of eltrombopag. We examined 56 adult newly diagnosed ITP patients treated with eltrombopag after a median time from diagnosis of 48 months. Among the 38 patients who achieved complete remission, eltrombopag was discontinued in 26. Among the 26 patients, 12 (46.2%) had an immediate relapse after discontinuing eltrombopag and 16 (53.8%) showed sustained response without additional ITP therapy, despite discontinuing eltrombopag, with a median follow-up of 52 months. No significant differences were observed in platelets, the median duration of eltrombopag, the absolute number of T, B, and NK cells at the initiation of eltrombopag between patients who sustained response and those who relapsed after discontinuing eltrombopag. However, the number of B and NK cells at the discontinuation of eltrombopag was higher in patients who sustained response than in those who relapsed (p=0.022 and p=0.012, respectively). The present results indicate that the absolute number of B (≥ 0.20 x 109/L) and NK (≥ 0.36 x 109/L) cells at the discontinuation of eltrombopag contributes to the prediction of outcomes.
Our findings illustrate the widespread collateral impact of implementing measures to mitigate the impact of COVID-19 in people with, or being investigated for diabetes mellitus (DM). Ironically, failure to focus of the wider implications for people with DM and other groups with long-term conditions, may place them at increased risk of poor outcomes from SARS-CoV-2 infection itself, irrespective of the implications for their longer-term health prospects.
ABSTRACT Objective: We aimed to investigate the prognostic significance of intraductal carcinoma in radical prostatectomy (RP) specimens and predictive value of IDC-P for biochemical recurrence and adjuvant therapy decision. Method: Patients who underwent RP between 2000-2014 with final pathological stage pT3a and negative surgical margins (Group 1, n=35) and pT2 with positive surgical margins (Group 2, n=32) were included. RP specimens were re-evaluated for the presence of IDC-P component and other prognostic factors. In both groups, prognostic factors were compared according to the presence of IDC-P and biochemical recurrence status. Results: In group 1, IDC-P was detected in 5 cases and biochemical recurrence was detected in 3 cases. Patients with IDC-P showed significantly higher biochemical recurrence than those without IDC-P (p=0.002). In univariate analysis, IDC-P was found to be significantly associated with worse progression free survival (p<0.001). In group 2, IDC-P was detected in 4 cases and biochemical recurrence was detected in 10 cases. Also, tumor volume was significantly higher in patients with IDC-P than those without IDC-P (p=0.02). IDC-P was also significantly associated with worse progression free survival in group 2 (p=0.033). Conclusions: In both groups, IDC-P is a prognostic factor for progression free survival and / or biochemical recurrence. Especially in these patients, presence of IDC-P might be helpful for postoperative adjuvant therapy management decision. Keywords: radical prostatectomy, intraductal carcinoma of prostate (IDC-P), prostate cancer, biochemical recurrence, progression free survival.
PURPOSE: We aim to do an efficacy-safety analysis of Mirabegron-Tamsulosin combination therapy versus tamsulosin-placebo monotherapy in a select subset of medication virgin BPH patients with coexisting predominantly overactive bladder symptoms (OABS). METHODS: After prior written informed consent and institutional ethics clearance, 80 patients of uncomplicated BPH with coexisting OABS and IPSS of >7 were computer randomized and allocated to receive therapy with either [50mg Mirabegronplus Tamsulosin 0.4 mg (Intervention arm)]or [Tamsulosin 0.4 mg plus capsule lactobacillus (Comparator arm)] once daily for a period of 8 weeks. Efficacy was evaluated using the OABS Score (OABSS), mean change in the frequency of nocturnal voiding, post void residue (PVR) and international prostate symptom score (IPSS) while safety was assessed by recording treatment emergent adverse events (TEAE). The protocol was registered prospectively with the clinical trials registry of India (CTRI/2018/12/016541). RESULTS: Significant improvements were visualised in the primary endpoint total OABS subscore (OABSS-ss) at the end of 8 weeks in the combination group (mean difference -5.62 vs -2.22p< 0.001).Similar significant improvements were seen with most of the secondary parameters such as the mean change in voiding episode/night, IPSS, IPSS-ss,OABS-ss, voided volume/micturition, Qmax, and Quality of Life (QOL) indices (p<0.001). No significant increase in PVR was observed in the Mirabegron arm and no patient developed urinary retention. The TEAE were minor, self-limiting and were managed symptomatically without any treatment discontinuity. CONCLUSION: Mirabegron was significantly efficacious and safe in ameliorating OABS induced by BPH versus placebo. This efficacy can be safely enhanced by initiating Mirabegron-Tamsulosin combination therapy from the start in medication virgin patients as opposed to the usual add on therapy protocol. This combination appeared to be superior in terms of overall safety, minimal side effects, better compliance and tolerability versus Tamsulosin monotherapy particularly in the select subset of patients of with BPH coexisting/predominant OABS.
Aims:Erectile dysfunction (ED) is a common condition affected by many factors. We aimed to show the impact of the metabolic syndrome (MeTS) on male sexual function based on VAI and the impact of increased levels of the VAI was investigated in patients with ED among the patients with and without MeTS. Methods:Participants who met MeTS criteria (Group 1, n=96) and without MeTS (Group 2, n=189) were included in this cross-sectional study. The MeTS diagnosis was made in the presence of at least three of the following criteria: serum glucose level higher than 100 mg/dl, HDL cholesterol level below 40 mg/dl, triglyceride level greater than 150 mg/dl, waist circumference greater than 102 cm and blood pressure greater than 130/85 mmHg. Demographic data were recorded; biochemical and hormonal tests were measured. Erectile and other sexual function scores were recorded. The VAI was calculated using the [(WC/39.68)+(1.88xMI)]xTG/1.03x1.31/HDL formula. Results:Mean age, smoking volume, T and T/E2 ratios of the groups were similar (p>0.05). Mean VAI was two-fold higher in patients in Group 1 (p<0.001) and erectile function score was lower in Group 1 than Group 2 (p=0.001). Other sexual function scores were similar (p>0.05). The METS was associated with an increased risk of ED (p=0.001). Logistic regression analysis showed that each integer increase of the VAI was associated with a 1.4-fold increased risk of ED (p<0.001). Higher T values were associated with a better erectile function (p=0.03). For the VAI=4.33, receiver-operating characteristic analysis showed a sensitivity of 89.6 % and specificity of 57.7 %. Conclusion:Compared to non-MeTS, the presence of MeTS has emerged as a risk factor for patients with ED with high VAI levels while the other sexual functions are preserved. Management of ED patients with MeTS should cover a comprehensive metabolic and endocrinological evaluation in addition to andrological work up.
Purpose: We designed a multicenter, retrospective study to investigate the current trends in initial management of reflux with respect to EAU guidelines in Urology clinics of our country. Materials and Methods: The study group consisted of 1988 renal units (RU) of 1345 patients treated surgically due to VUR between years 2003-2017 in 9 different institutions. Patients were divided into 2 groups according to time of initial treatment and also grouped according to risk factors by “EAU guidelines on VUR”. Results: 1426 RUs were treated initially conservatively and 562 RUs were initially treated with surgery. In initially surgically treated group, success rates of surgery decreased significantly in low and moderate risk groups after 2013 (p=0.046, p=0.0001, respectively), while success rates were not significantly different in high risk group (p=0.46). While 26.6% of patients in low risk group were initially surgically treated before 2013, this rate has increased to 34.6% after 2013, but the difference was not statistically significant (p=0.096). However, performing surgery as the initial treatment approach increased significantly in both moderate and high risk groups (p=0.000 and p=0.0001, respectively) after 2013. Overall success rates of endoscopic and UNC operations were 65% and 92.9% before 2013, 60% and 78.5% after 2013, respectively. Thus the overall success rate for surgery was 72.6%. There was significant difference between success rates of UNC operations before and after 2013(p=0.000), while the difference was not significant in the STING group (p=0.076). Conclusion: Current trends in management of reflux in our country do not yet follow the EAU guidelines on VUR in low and moderate risk groups.
Introduction: Prevalence of insomnia is higher in females and increases with higher age. Besides primary insomnia, comorbid sleep disorders are also common, accompanying different conditions. Considering the possible adverse effects of commonly used drugs to promote sleep, a nonpharmacologic approach should be preferred in most cases. Although generally considered first-line treatment, the nonpharmacologic approach is often underestimated by both patients and physicians. Objective: To provide primary care physicians an up-to-date approach to the nonpharmacologic treatment of insomnia. Methods: PubMed, Web of Science, and Scopus databases were searched for relevant articles about the nonpharmacologic treatment of insomnia up to December 2020. We restricted our search only to articles written in English. Main Message: Most patients presenting with sleep disorder symptoms can be effectively managed in the primary care setting. Primary care physicians may use pharmacologic and nonpharmacologic approaches, while the latter should be generally considered first-line treatment. A primary care physician may opt to refer the patient to a sleep medicine specialist for refractory cases. Conclusions: This paper provides an overview of current recommendations and up-to-date evidence for the nonpharmacologic treatment of insomnia. This article emphasizes the importance of cognitive-behavioral therapy for insomnia, likewise, exercise and relaxation techniques. Complementary and alternative approaches are also covered.
Objectives: To externally validate and compare Resorlu-Unsal stone score(RUSS), modified Seoul National University Renal Stone Complexity Score(S-ReSC), Ito’s nomogram and R.I.R.S. scoring systems for predicting capabilities of both the stone-free status and complications in a multi-institutional study. Materials and Methods: We performed a retrospective analysis of 949 patients who were underwent flexible ureterorenoscopy (f-URS) and laser lithotripsy for renal stones in two institutions between March-2015 and June-2020. The RUSS, modified S-ReSC, Ito’s nomogram and R.I.R.S. scores were calculated for each patient by same surgeon on imaging methods. Results were compared for their predictive capability of stone-free status and complications. Results: Of 949 patients 603 were male and 346 were female with a mean age of 47.2±14.3 (range 2-84years). Mean stone burden was 102.6±42.2 (48-270mm2). All nomograms predicted stone-free status (AUC were 0.689, 0.657, 0.303 and 0.690, respectively). All four scoring systems predicted complications with AUC values of 0.689, 0.646, 0.286 and 0.664 for RUSS, modified S-ReSC, Ito’s nomogram, R.I.R.S., respectively. Although all scoring systems were able to predict complications only Ito’s nomogram was able to predict Clavien ≥2 complications. Conclusion: All four scoring systems (RUSS, modified S-ReSC, Ito’s nomogram and R.I.R.S.) could predict stone-free status after f-URS, however the AUC values are not satisfactory in our large patient cohort. Although these scoring systems were not developed for predicting post-operative complications, they were associated with complications in our study. However, these four scoring systems have some significant limitations. The ideal scoring system is yet to be developed.
Abstract Aims of the study: The aim of this study was to investigate the impact of testosterone deficiency on cognitive functions in metastatic prostate cancer patients receiving androgen deprivation therapy (ADT). Methods: In this multicentric prospective study, 65 metastatic prostate cancer patients were evaluated. Demographic and clinical data were recorded. Cognitive functions were assessed using the Symbol Digit Modalities Test, the California Verbal Learning Test Second Edition, the Brief Visuospatial Memory Test - Revised, and the Trail Making Test. Depressive symptoms were assessed using the Beck Depression Inventory. Cognitive functions and depressive symptoms were recorded before the androgen deprivation therapy and at the 3- and 6-month follow ups. Results: At the basal cognitive assessment, the mean Symbol Digit Modalities Test, the California Verbal Learning Test Second Edition, the Brief Visuospatial Memory Test - Revised scores were 25.84 ± 17.54, 32.68 ± 10.60, and 17.63 ± 11.23, respectively, and the mean time for the Trail Making Test was 221.56 ± 92.44 s., and were similar at the 3-month, and 6-month controls (p > 0.05). The mean pretreatment, third and sixth month testosterone levels were 381.40 ± 157.53 ng/dL, 21.61 ± 9.09 ng/dL, and 12.25 ± 6.45 ng/dL (p < 0.05), and the total PSA levels were 46.46 ± 37.83 ng/mL, 1.41 ± 3.31 ng/mL, and 0.08 ± 0.14 ng/mL (p < 0.05), respectively. Conclusion: The ADT in patients with metastatic prostate cancer does not affect patients’ cognitive functions and depressive symptoms. However, further prospective randomized studies with higher cohorts and longer follow up periods are needed.
Background: To investigate the relationship between ureteral wall thickness (UWT) and other variables of patients who underwent extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy (SWL) in the primary treatment of the ureteral stone above the iliac crest level. Material and methods: A total of 147 patients aged 18 years and older, who underwent SWL in our clinic between December 2016 and December 2019 for the treatment of ureteral stones above the iliac crest level and had a non-contrast-enhanced abdominal computed tomography (NCCT) scans before the procedure were included in the clinical study. The results were evaluated at three months after SWL. The absence of residual fragments was considered as stone-free status, and the existence of any size residual fragment was considered as treatment failure. Results: In our study, the mean age of the patients was 42.4 ± 12.8 years, and the stone-free rate was 92.5%. The median transverse stone size was 7.5 mm (min 2.8 - max 15), and the median UWT was 4.2 mm (1 - 8.7). In the multivariate analysis, UWT (p = 0.002) and multiple stone presence (p = 0.027) were found to be independent factors affecting stone-free status. In the receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve analysis, the optimal threshold value for UWT was determined as 5.25 mm. Conclusions: We found that UWT was the most important independent variable associated with increased failure in SWL treatment. The presence of multiple stones was another independent factor that increased failure rates. Using SWL technology through experience accumulated with the mechanical hardware of the machine, we can select patients who are more suitable for this treatment and improve treatment outcomes.